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10.2.2.3. Witte stip medicatie

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Auteur : David Bogert

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8 minuten
Difficulty : Level 8

Excerpt :

How do you treat a case of ich in tropical fish?
10.2.2.3. Witte stip medicatie
10.2.2.3. Witte stip medicatie

MYTHBUSTER: ALLE goed uitgevoerde wetenschappelijke studies door onderzoekers over hitte en witte stip hebben ontdekt dat hitte totaal niet effectief is bij de behandeling van witte stip!

Merk op dat er twee andere ziekten zijn die op witte stip lijken (tetrahymena bij levendbarende vissen en epistylis bij andere vissen). Let dus op dat je witte stip hebt.

Openbare aquaria gebruiken formaline/malachietgroen (Ich-X, Rid-Ich Plus, Blue Planet White Spot Remedy, AquaCare Anti-Fungus & White Spot en Mardel QuickCure) om witte stip bij zoetwatervissen te behandelen, net als University Research Centers, Cory of Aquarium Co-op en Joey.

Opmerking:

  • NOOIT het filter uitschakelen, het filter verwijderen, het filtermedium vervangen of het filtermedium reinigen. Als de koolstof langer dan twee weken in het aquarium heeft gezeten, verwijder deze dan NIET (in tegenstelling tot sommige aanwijzingen). Dit is erg belangrijk.
  • Verplaats de vissen NIET naar een quarantainebak (in tegenstelling tot sommige aanwijzingen).
  • Formaline en malachietgroen zijn beide giftig in doseringen die groot genoeg zijn, dus volg zorgvuldig de doseringsinstructies op de medicatiefles.
  • Als men de temperatuur verhoogt met formaline/malachietgroen kan de medicatie enigszins giftig worden.
  • Cory en anderen hebben zonder enig probleem duizenden "schubloze" vissen behandeld met volledige sterkte formaline medicatie
  • Formaline/malachietgroen is bij de juiste dosering niet giftig voor slakken of garnalen.
  • Bij 24 graden moeten formaline en malachietgroen elke dag worden toegevoegd om effectief te zijn.
  • Volg de aanwijzingen op de medicatie met betrekking tot waterverversingen.

De baanbrekende studie over witte stip behandelingen (Tieman en Goodwin, 2001) vond dat zout (0,25%) en warmte geen effect hadden op witte stip. Andere studies zeggen dat 0,5% tot 1% zout de mortaliteit door witte stip kan verminderen, maar niet zo effectief is als medicatie. UV-sterilisatoren, zelfs bij lage wattages, kunnen enorm helpen om witte stip uit het aquarium te verwijderen.

Established filters have thousands of little carnivorous critters in them which eat the infectious ich stage (the “theront”), so the filter is very important. The net result of this filter “medication” is that if you have a long-established aquarium filter with plenty of brown “gunk” in it, it is perfectly OK to do absolutely nothing for the ich. It will simply go away on its own in a week or two.

Because ich will go away in an established aquarium, there are at least 55 “treatments” currently “absolutely guaranteed” to stop ich.  There is an old saying in science: “correlation does not imply causation”. ANY treatment of ich in a tank with an established filter will work. The ashes from the cremation of a dead squirrel will work to remove ich in a tank with an established filter

One Facebook commentator had ich pop up. He set up an “emergency” hospital tank with a new filter and put the infected fish into it. He took the temperature up. He added some salt. All the fish died. Not a good idea! The lack of microscopic carnivores in the new filter let ich kill the fish.

Several Facebook commentators  said things along the line of:

I set up a new tank per the instructions of my LFS and added Prime conditioner, Stress Coat and Stability. Per the instructions of my LFS I added six platies, four neons, and two angelfish.  They all got white spot disease. So I added Melafix medication per the instructions. All my fish died. Where did I go wrong?

Again, the lack of microscopic carnivores in a new filter (and using Melafix as the medication) doomed the fish. This is one very good reason to do fishless cycling for four to six weeks before adding fish.  Note these deaths will always be blamed by the experts on “ammonia poisoning”.

Ich Treatments with Research which Backs Them

There are six treatments which have valid university research backing them as decent treatments for ich (in descending order of effectiveness):

  • PREFERRED TREATMENT FOR FRESHWATER – Formalin/Malachite Green (Ich-X, Rid-Ich Plus, Blue Planet White Spot Remedy, AquaCare Anti-Fungus & White Spot, and Mardel QuickCure)
  • Malachite Green alone (API Super Ich Cure, Nox-Ich, Tetra Ick Guard, Kordon Rapid Cure, Costapur by Sera, Paraguard, Waterlife Protozin [malachite green and copper] or Waterlife Myxazin [Malachite Green and Acriflavine])
  • Formalin (NT Labs Koi Care Formaldehyde)
  • Copper (Cupramine, Copper Power, Copper Aide, ESHA 2000 or Copper Safe)
  • Methylene Blue (Kordon Methylene Blue)
  • 5,000 to 7,500 ppm salt (sodium chloride)

These are the ONLY medications with any university backing. Note there are over fifty other medications claiming to be effective.

The seminal study on ich treatments (Tieman and Goodwin, 2001) found salt (0.25%) and heat to have no effect on ich. Other studies say 0.5% to 1% salt can reduce mortality from ich but is not as effective as medication. Adding a wavemaker and/or a UV sterilizer is also very helpful in treating ich.

Established filters have thousands of little carnivorous critters in them which eat the infectious ich stage (the “theront”) so the filter is very important. The net result of this filter “medication” is that if you have a long established aquarium filter with plenty of brown “gunk” in it, it is perfectly OK to do absolutely nothing for the ich. It will simply go away on its own in a week or two.

Also note that both copper and salt CAN kill SOME plants. There is no research on what plants are or or not affected. At proper dosages formalin/malachite green does not normally kill plants.

Using Formaldehyde/Malachite Green to Treat Ich

The medication of choice for home aquarium is unquestionably formaldehyde/malachite green.  Products such as Ich-X, probably the most popular ich medication in the hobby, are formaldehyde (<5%), methanol (<2%), malachite green chloride (<0.1%).  If Ich-X is used per the directions, it ends up being 22 ppm of formalin and 0.13 ppm of malachite green in the aquarium.

One interesting myth is that if a bottle has a filmy white mucus in it when it is opened do not use it as this mucous is deadly. The mucous is polymerized formaldehyde, a plastic material known as an “acetal polymer”. It is harmless. But the solution has lost its effectiveness and should be discarded. The methanol in Ich-X is there to stabilize the formaldehyde against this polymerization. Cold temperatures accelerate the polymerization.

a fish with ich, white spot or ick
ich, witte stip of ick

Note that many, including the medication manufacturers, do not understand the importance of a filter to the removal of the infectious ich theronts. Typifying this is the Ich X directions per Hikari:

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

To treat “ich” disease (ichthyophthiriasis) of freshwater fishes and “marine ich” disease (cryptocaryonaisis) of marine fishes, add one (1) teaspoon (~5 mL) of Ich-X to 10 gallons of aquarium water. For Best Results: (1) always treat in a separate quarantine/treatment tank, (2) remove activated carbon from filters and clean or replace mechanical filtration media (do not stop filtration!) (3) make at least 1/3 water change before each addition of Ich-X (use Ultimate to condition new water (4) repeat treatments at least every 24 hours, but no more often than every 8 hours, depending upon the course of the disease (refer to the Ich-X Product Data Sheet).

We do NOT recommend transfer to a hospital tank with a new filter. One must have an established filter to treat ich. We do NOT recommend replacing mechanical filtration media as in most aquariums the “mechanical filtration media” is actually biological filtration. We do NOT recommend cleaning the filter or removing the activated carbon. In most aquariums the activated carbon in the filter is long overdue for change and will not remove the malachite green.

In 90% of the aquariums using activated carbon the carbon is just a biological media covered in beneficial bacteria. The activated carbon has become “deactivated” carbon and simply acts as a surface where the microscopic carnivores that “eat” ich theronts can multiply.

a fish with ich, white spot or ick
ich, witte stip of ick

If one is in Europe formalin is not available. There are three medications which will work in place of formalin/malachite green: malachite green, methylene blue and copper (Cupramine, Copper Power, Copper Aide, ESHA 2000 or Copper Safe).

If one is dead set against using any “chemicals” in their aquariums and wants to use a “natural” approach, salt (sodium chloride) is reasonably effective at a dosage of  one to one and one half cups of salt per ten gallons of water (5,000 to 7,500 ppm). Note research says this is NOT as effective as the medications above. Note that this level of salt will kill most plants. Adding a wavemaker and/or adding a UV sterilizer will also decidedly help control an ich outbreak.

To go into the research on ich medications click on the following link:

10.2.2.4. Ich Medications in More Detail

Witte stip in meer detail

Ich is the most common fish disease and warrants a more in-depth discussion. The following chapters are devoted to this common fish disease:

10.2.2.1. Witte stip in meer detail

10.2.2.2. Immuniteit van vissen voor witte stip

10.2.2.3. Witte stip medicijnen

10.2.2.4. Witte stip medicijnen in meer detail

10.2.2.5. Ineffectieve witte stip medicijnen

10.2.2.6. Filtering gebruiken om witte stip te verwijderen

10.2.2.7. Witte stip behandelen met warmte

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